It is significant to thoroughly scrutinize past practices and feats, to identify important factors towards developmental failure and success and to avoid mistakes for the future of an industrialized and prosperous Afghanistan. As a result of profound research, a number of researchers have added to the literature on the country’s history, culture, wars, strategic importance and position as a buffer state that cover Afghan polity, ideological dimensions, and social and cultural intricacies.
However, few scholarly works exist on the political economy in general and on the historical economic performances and policies in detail. Drawing upon immense and varied literature, the purpose of this paper is to analyze and describe historical and social changes, economic structures and strategies of Afghanistan with a detailed account of (i) political vision, (ii)
institutional reforms, (iii) economic agendas, and (iv) development progress in the light of economic development theory and practice. We conclude that being provided right policies and firm political determination, Afghanistan has the potential to become a more developed country in the short span of time.