Subsets of the infiltrating lymphocytes in lung cancer tissues of 64 patients were identified by immunohistochemical staining (ABC method) using monoclonal antibodies (Leu 2a, Leu 3a+b, Leu 4, Leu 7 and Leu 14). T cells were predominant in lung cencer tissues, and tended to infiltrate into cancer cell nests and stoma, diffusely and focally. On the contrary, B cells in most cases were observed to infiltrate focally apart from cancer cells. There was a significant reverse correlation between the intensity of the T cell infiltration and the tumor T factors, and also between Th/i cell infiltration and the tumor T factors. Th/i cells were more prominent in lung cancer than Ts/c cells, and Ts/c cells scarcely infiltrated. NK, K cells also infiltrated scarcely and sparsely, and there was no correlation between the intensity of NK, K infiltration and the clinical condition. It was concluded that immunohistochemical examination of infiltrating lymphocyte subsets in lung cancer can reveal direct local immune responses and may be a useful method for making prognoses.