By adding sera of the patients with various blood diseases along with iron to the bone-marrow tissue culture in fluid medium the author has observed direct influences of the sera on the erythrocyte series in bone marrow and studied their action from the standpoint of the iron metabolism in erythroblasts, and obtained the following results. 1. In the cases of the bone-marrow tissue culture supplemented with sera from idiopathic hypochromic anemia, Banti's disease, Hodgkin's disease and a portion of leukemias (myelogenous leukemia, acute lymphocytic leukemia) along with iron, there can be recognized no factor that affects the iron metabolism of erythroblasts and hence these sera seem to have no direct action to inhibit the bone-marrow function. 2. It has been found that there is a factor that disturbs the bonemarrow erythropoiesis in the serum of hypoplastic anemia. 3. In the sara of cancer and monocytic leukemia patients likewise there is a factor that suppresses the erythropoiesis of bone marrow. 4. It is obvious that the serum of polycythemia vera contains a factor that accelerates the erythropoiesis of bone marrow.