By observing the anemia occurring in the course of development of tuberculosis in guinea pig, it has been elucidated that there are two periods of anemia distinguishable from each other by their characteristics as follows. The primary anemia which appears during the period of 30-40 days after infection, is hypochromic one accompanied by the slight anisocytosis. This sort of anemia can be seen in almost all the cases and is generally accompanied by an abnormal increase of reticulocyte number and destined to recover soon. The secondary anemia appears about 50 days after the inoculation of bacteria and this anemia is of normo or hypochromic type accompanied by a marked anisocytoses. The reticulocyte number remains in a low level and the anemia shows no recovery tendency. Pathological changes in the viscera in the stadium of the primary anemia are relatively slight with accompaniment of cell infiltration, but not of necrosis nor marked productive changes, while in the period of the secondary anemia the tissue damages are severe, showing the caseous degeneration with some marked proliferative changes.