During twenty one years from 1934 to 1954, there were 1,974 patients of radiation therapy in the gynecological department of Okayama University. The authors made statistical observations on parametritis and peritonitis which developed during and after radiological treatment. Results obtained were as follows:- Parametritis, 211 cases (10.69%), peritonitis 132 cases (6.69%). The occurrence was higher in the war time (1943 to 1949), and thereafter it has gradually been decreasing in number. The onset started evidently often after the biginning of the radium treatment. It was clear that the patients were frequently observed in cases of advanced cancer, and the occurrence was higher in the patients less than 50 years of age. On the blood count, peritonitis had high incidence in cases of leucocytosis over 8,000 and showed high incidence in cases of high blood sedimentation rate (more than 100 mm an hour), and both had low incidence in the low rate (less than 39 mm an hour). It will be said that better effect is expectable by means of prophylaxis and adequate treatment of those inflammatory conditions using recently advanced antibiotics.