Obtained results as follows, by performing bone marrow transplantation and intravenous injection of polysaccharide extracted from bone marrow, for 10 cases of patients of hypoplastic anemia. 1) Performing the treatment due to bone marrow transplantation for 3 cases, obtained very good results. Above all, it proved so poignantly its effect in a patient suffering seriously; at some occasions, his anemia indicated a recovery nearly like a person of health; could survive for a pretty long period. 2) Having intravenously injected polysaccharide extracted from bone marrow for 7 cases, recognized an inerease of blood cells in 5 cases, while in the remaining 2 cases it proved in vain. Among successful cases, 3 showed a marked increase in blood cells and recovered from anemia, but in the other two blood cells have increased for a while after several times of injection. Cases which proved effectless were all been serious ones, with whom the image of bone marrow have proved panmyelophthisis. These effects shown in the blood cells increase due to bone marrow transplantation would justly be interpreted as Miyakawa had told, that it has worked autohormonly, since there were seen results of stimulated function of hematopoetie organs, which has undergone some stimulus from effective substances contained in transplanted bone marrow; moreover, polysaccharide extraded from bone rmarrow are supposed, not only have power to dilate marrow vessels, and send out of blood cells in the Lone marrow, but also it has been vindicated to be able to increase of blood cells by stimulating the parenchyma of bone marrow. as was seen under our experiment on bone marrow tissue culture; and would be recommended as a method in clinic for patients of hypoplastic anemia, for which men believed hitherto to have no fit remedy.