Journal of Okayama Medical Association
Published by Okayama Medical Association

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血液型ノ人種學的應用價値及ビ東播地方ニ於ケル血液型ノ分佈状態ニ就テ

奧 源之助
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抄録
1. With regard to the grounds for the applicability of the human blood groups to ethnology, former investigators were of opinion that the rate of distribution of the blood groups possessed by one tribe is proper to the tribe and invariable from the beginning of the existence of the tribe down to the present time; and that therefore if the rate of distribution of the blood groups of the existing tribe is investigated, the result thus obtained can be directly applied to the inference of the rate of distribution of the human blood groups in the ancestors of the tribe. It is very difficult, however, to say that in man the number of gametes generated by each individual is definite, and that they maintain their existence and fulfils their function without exception. The human race may be said to have extraneous fertilization, in the borader sense of the term, but customarily people are amrried among their own kind, and therefore something very near to “inter-fertilization, ” in the narrower sense, ought to take place in an extremely slow degree. Moreover, there is the phenomenon of ‘linkage’ as recognizable from the hypothesis on heredity established by the present writer. From these facts it is perhaps difficult to say that the frequency of the gametes of the blood groups can constantly have an invariable equilibrium. Besides, every human race in general shows the rate of distribution of blood groups proper to itself. When the same race is observed in the same district, an approximate rate of distribution is recognized, but when it is locally discriminated, the fact that considerable difference is present in the distribution is always experienced in actual experiment. This experimental fact, indeed, properly corresponds to the theoretical expectation above-mentioned. Thus the frequency of the gametes of blood groups is variable at the present time and a constantly invariable equilibrium is not yet reached; it is still in the transition stage towards that equilibrium. But as the blood type is inherited according to a definite rule, the comparative frequency of the gametes possessed by one tribe is also proper to the tribe, and the comparative frequency of the zygotes formed by the former is also proper to the tribe, and in consequence the rate of distribution of blood groups is naturally proper to the trible. Therefore all the tribes with the same ancestors in their origin show the same rate of distribution of blood groups. Therefore the opinion held by former investigators that the rate of distribution in a tribe is constantly invariable from the origin of the tribe down to the present time must be said to be improper. 2. With regard to the rate of distribution of blood groups in the masses, the frequency of the unit of inheritance in four types can be calculated, upon the basis of the author's linkage hypothesis. On this ground, it is possible to observe the rate in which the unit of inheritance is distributed in a tribe, and accordingly comparative investigation of several kinds of tribes is possible. The unit of inheritance in four types is as follows: Ref.: Factors of two pair allelomorphism: a……The blood corpuscles not possessing A agglutinogen, but the serum possessing α aggultinin. A……The corpuscles possessing A agglutinogen, but the serum not possessing α agglutinin. b……The corpuscles not possessing B agglutinogen, but the serum possessing β agglutinin. B……The corpuscles possessing B agglutinogen, but the serum possessing β agglutinin. The units of inheritance, and accordingly the kinds of gametes, are ab, Ab, aB and AB; and the respective frequency is represented by R, P, Q and Z. n (=11) indicates the number of non-cross-overs. R=√O P=1/2{√A+O-√O+1-(√B+O+1-√O+A+B+AB×2n+2/2n+3)} Q=1/2{√B+O-√O+1-(√A+O+1-√O+A+B+AB×2n+2/2n+3)} Z=1-√O+A+B+AB×2n+2/2n+3 3. The rate of distribution of the blood groups in the masses in the eastern part of Harima Province is O type 31.30% A type 39.23% B type 21.11% AB type 8.36% Rassen index 1.61, which agrees with the Japanese blood type as Furuhata calls it. When the frequency of the unit of inheritance is calculated according to the author's linkage hypothesis, we find R=55.9464% P=27.7229% Q=16.1355% Z=0.1952% When the rate of distribution of the blood groups in the two sexes is observed, no particular difference can be recognized between them.
備考
原著
ISSN
0030-1558
NCID
AN00032489