In cases of paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH), attention must be paid to potential complications such as thrombosis and hemolysis due to perioperative stress and infection from complement activation. Here we present the case of a 61-year-old Japanese woman with PNH. We made the diagnosis of PNH when she was 28 years old, and we administered repeated steroid medication and erythrocyte transfusion. The patient's cholecystocholedocholithiasis with a cholecystoduodenal fistula was diagnosed based on a survey of the right hypochondriac pain. We performed endoscopic nasobiliary drainage (ENBD) for the prophylaxis of perioperative infection, plus a cholecystectomy and fistulectomy. There were no complications, including hemolysis attack, infection, thrombosis with irrigation erythrocyte transfusion, steroid cover, or the need for heparin administration during the perioperative period. The reduction of the complement activation is necessary in the perioperative management of PNH patients. The prevention of the development of acidosis and hypoxemia, the selection of washed red blood cells, steroid use, appropriate infection measures and thrombosis prophylaxis are all important for the prevention of complications.
発作性夜間血色素尿症（PNH）（paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH)）