We report the case of a 61-old-man with a primary malignant melanoma of the esophagus, an extremely rare and highly aggressive malignancy. He presented with dysphagia, and we performed an upper gastrointestinal endoscopy that detected a tumor in the thoracic part of the esophagus. The biopsy showed malignant melanoma. PET/CT, endoscopy and an esophagogram showed that a 70-mm scaled type 2+1 tumor in the thoracic esophagus and no metastases. We diagnosed a cT3cN0cM0 cStage II tumor. We then performed a subtotal esophagectomy with two-field lymph node dissection and esophagogastrostomy via a retrosternal route. The pathological examination of the resected specimens confirmed that the type 2+1 tumor was PMME (pT2N0M0 pStage II). We administered six courses of postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy with dacarbazine, and the patient has had no recurrence for 17 months after the surgery.