The role of overhead traction in the treatment of development al dislocation of the hip, using two-directional srthrography before and after overhead traction,in 56 hips (47 patients) was investigated. There were 5 males (6 hips) and 42 females (50 hips). Of the 56 hips, 41 were treated before walking age and 15 after walking age. The age at the time of overhead traction ranged from 5 to 22 months (average 9 months). Mau'soriginal traction method was used in 38 hips from 1974 to 1988 and Ishida's modified method in 18 hips from 1989 to 2000, but the results were poorer with the former method. Reduction of the femoral head was considered to be obtained when it moved to the entrance of the acetabulum after overhead traction (19 of 41 hips). The shapes of the anterior and posterior portions of the limbus were corrected in 8 of 52 hips, especially in the cases treated before walking age. The superior portion of the linbus was uncharnged. According to the appearance on images, modifind overhead traction appeared to be effective in achieving reduction, but could not comoletely correct the limbus shape.