The beneficial effect of recombinant human erythropoietin (EPO) for renal anemia in patients with chronic hemodialysis has been esthablishel. EPO is reported to be effective against renal anemia when adeministered at a dose 3,000 units three times a week. However, only a few studies have been made on the therapy to maintain the anemia-improving effect of EPO. In the present study, we performed EPO maintenance therapy on 22 hemodialysis patients with renal anemia. EPO was initialy administered at a dose of 3,000 units three times a week, and maintenance therapy was initiated after 12 weeks of treatment. The patients were divided into two groups, with EPO being administered at a dose of 1,500 units twice a week to one group and three times a week to the other. The duration of maintenance therapy was set at eight weeks. The anemia-improving effect of EPO was found to be satisfactorily maintained in both groups and no significant difference was noted between them. According, it may be better to use the lower dose regimen of 1,500 units twice a week for the maintenance therapy of renal anemia.