Primary culture of human primary liver cancer tissues treated with or without trancatheter arterial embolization (TAE) was perfomed with the following results. 1. The yield and viability were very low in cells from primary liver cancer tissues dissociated with enzymes. 2. Epithelial-like cells were found from TAE-treated cancer tissues at a ratio of 1/8 in both monolayer and explant culture and from TAE-nontreated tissues at a ratio of 4/12 in monolayer culture and 3/12 in explant culture. The AFP-producing capahity of these epithelial-like cells has been maintained from one week to one month in culture. 3. Cells derived from two TAE-nontreated cancer tissues were subculturable. One was established as a cholangiocellular carcinoma cell line. 4. No heterotransplantability of primary cultured cancer cells into nude mice was found.