Prognostic factors were analyzed in 91 patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer entered in protocol studies of combination chemotherapy between 1975 and 1986. Patients were divided into two or three groups according to pretreatment clinical and laboratory parameters. The stage of the disease, pretreatment erythrocyte sedimentation rate, serum albumin level and serum alkaline phosphatase level were revealed by univariate analysis to significantly affect patient survival. The pretreatment serum lactic dehydrogenase level slightly affected patient survival. Patients responding to chemotherapy and those with stabilized disease had a better prognosis than those with progressive disease.When these factors were evaluated by multivariate analysis, the most influential prognostic factors for survival were in the order of stage of the disease, serum albumin level, serum alkaline phosphatase level and lymphocyte number in the peripheral blood. After inclusion of tumor response to chemotherapy, the factors were in the order of stage of the disease, tumor response, lymphocyte number in the peripheral blood and serum albumin level. These results indicate that improved survival can be achieved even in patients with advanced disease when a potent chemotherapy is applied while the patient is in good condition.