This paper discusses the diversifying lives of Zainichi Koreans in order to understand their identities in transition. Along with the improved legal and social status of Zainichi Koreans and subsequently their living conditions, a large number of Zainichi Koreans have been leaving ethnic institutions, and in some cases, the Zainichi community. The ethnic relations surrounding Zainichi Koreans also partly reflect the diplomatic relations between Japan and the two Koreas. The difference in the images of the two Koreas is a significant factor in their ethnic identities. This paper also examines how Zainichi Korean civil rights movements after the 1970s have encouraged many Zainichi Koreans to assert and maintain their ethnic pride.