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ID 40007
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Author
Furumatsu, Takayuki Kaken ID publons
Abstract
Epigenetics is an essential mechanism to control gene expression and fundamental cellular processes. DNA methylation in CpG-rich promoters correlates with gene silencing. Histone modification including histone acetylation and deacetylation determines the stability of the chromatin structure. Condensed chromatin (heterochromatin), which has a higher-order histone-DNA structure, prevents the access of transcriptional activators to their target genes. The fundamental unit of eukaryotic chromatin consists of 146 bp of DNA wrapped around a histone octamer. Posttranslational modifications of the histone tail and the chromatin remodeling complex disrupt histone-DNA contacts and induce nucleosome mobilization. Histone acetylation of specific lysine residues in the histone tail plays a crucial role in epigenetic regulation. Histone acetylation is a dynamic process regulated by the antagonistic actions of 2 families of enzymes - the histone acetyltransferases (HATs) and the histone deacetylases (HDACs). The balance between histone acetylation and deacetylation serves as a key epigenetic mechanism for transcription factor-dependent gene expression and the developmental process. We review emerging evidence that DNA methylation, histone acetylation modified by HAT and/or HDAC, and transcription factor-associated molecules contribute to a mechanism that can alter chromatin structure, gene expression, and cellular differentiation during chondrogenesis.
Keywords
epigenetics
DNA methylation
histone acetylation and HAT
histone deacetylation and HDAC
chondrogenesis
Amo Type
Review
Published Date
2010-06
Publication Title
Acta Medica Okayama
Volume
volume64
Issue
issue3
Publisher
Okayama University Medical School
Start Page
155
End Page
161
ISSN
0386-300X
NCID
AA00508441
Content Type
Journal Article
language
英語
Copyright Holders
Okayama University Medical School
File Version
publisher
Refereed
True
PubMed ID
Web of Science KeyUT