Title Alternative Genetic Analysis of Large Trichome in Barley Leaf Blade
FullText URL 002_001_063_068.pdf
Author Sato, Kazuhiro| Takeda, Kazuyoshi|
Abstract The inheritance and linkage relationship of a new hairiness trait "large trichome" was investigated in barley. Although the size of large trichome is about four times that of normal one, the character can not be recognized with the naked eye. However, it is easily identified by the roughness of leaf touch. The large trichomes develop on both sides of the leaf blades. The direction of trichome is both acropetal and basipetal. It is clearly distinguished from the extremely long trichome controlled by Pub gene. About 2,300 varieties of our Barley Germplasm Center were screened by the leaf touch to find nine varieties with large trichome. Two of them were six-rowed local variety from Pakistan, and other seven were two-rowed varieties from Europe and Japan. All of them were hulled type. Crosses of six large trichome varieties with a normal Japanese variety resulted in the large trichome type F1s, suggesting the dominant nature of the trait. The large trichome line Hokuiku 17 was crossed with various linkage testres to study the mode of inheritance and the linkage relationship of the gene. In the F2 populations, the large trichome was controlled by a single dominant gene named Ltr (large trichome), which was independentiy inherited from the following marker genes; br and gl-5 on chromosome 1; li and ν on chromosome 2; uz on chromosome 3; K and gl-3 on chromosome 4; trd on chromosome 5; ο on chromosome 6. On the other hand, from the cross between Hokuiku 17 and OUL166, Ltr was found to be linked with s and fs on chromosome 7. Although the allelism test has not been completed, the very low frequency of the large trichome type (9/2,300) indicates that the variant resulted from a recent mutation event, or the fitness of the variant is low in the natural and/or artificial selection.
Abstract Alternative 岡山大学資源生物科学研究所大麦系統保存施設が保有するオオムギのうち約2,300品種を対象として、葉身の表面に生じる毛(trichome)の変異体を検索した。1)2,300品種のうち9品種(0.4%)が葉身の表面に剛毛を生じた。2)通常の品種では毛茸の鈎状部分の長さが約10μmであるのに対して剛毛型の品種では約40μmであった。Pub遺伝子による長毛はこれよりはるかに長く、剛毛型とは明らかに異なった。3)剛毛型は優性の1遺伝子(Ltr,large trichome)に支配されており、連鎖分析の結果、第7染色体にLtr-s-fsの順に配列されることが明らかになった。
Keywords Barley Trichome Linkage analysis
Publication Title 岡山大学資源生物科学研究所報告
Published Date 1994
Volume volume2
Issue issue1
Start Page 63
End Page 68
ISSN 0916-930X
language 日本語
File Version publisher
NAID 120002313663
Title Alternative Establishment of a Seedling Test for Resistance to Net Blotch in Barley and a Search for Resistant Varieties
FullText URL 001_001_075_090.pdf
Author Sato, Kazihiro| Takeda, Kazuyoshi|
Abstract 大麦網斑病は糸状菌の1種であるPyrenophora teres Drechs.の感染によって葉身、葉鞘等に網目状の病斑を生じ、子実の登熟低下によって減収する共に、ビールオオムギにおいては醸造品質であるエキス分が低下する重要病害である。本病害は世界各地のオオムギ栽培地帯のうち主として温暖・湿潤な地域に分布しており(Shipton et al.1973)、近年、連作や灌漑によって被害が増大しつつある(Mathre 1982)。我国においては従来からその存在が確認されていたものの、登熟後期の活性の衰えた葉に生じる病害として重要性は認識されていなかった。しかし、最近、北海道、鳥取県、鹿児島県などのビールオオムギ栽培地帯で局所的な激発事例が確認されている。(佐藤、未発表)。本病害に対する防除法としては種子消毒ならびに殺菌剤の茎葉撒布が有効であるが、その効果は完全ではない。また、茎葉撒布はコストが高く、環境汚染の問題もあるので、最も有効で経済的かつ安全な防除法は抵抗性品種を栽培することと言っても良い。従来、本病害の積極的な抵抗性育種は行われていなかったが、最近は抵抗性を有する品種も育成されている(Metcalfe 1987)。抵抗性品種を育成するためには、遺伝資源ならびに雑種後代を効率よく評価、選抜するための検定方法を確立しなければならない。本病抵抗性の検定方法としては幼苗検定法、圃場検定法が考案されて広く用いられているが(Buchannon and McDonald 1965, Holtmeyer and Webster 1981)、環境条件の変化によって抵抗性が変動する事例が報告されているので(Khan and Boyd 1970, Tekauz 1986)、抵抗性を確実に評価するための安定した検定条件を設定する必要がある。抵抗性に関する遺伝資源についてはSchaller and Wiebe (1952)、Dessouki et al.(1965)およびBuchannon and McDonald (1965)等がそれぞれ数千品種を評価し、中国東北部、トルコおよびエチオピアなどに抵抗性の遺伝資源が豊富であること報告している。それらの品種のいくつかについては、抵抗性の遺伝子分析が行われており(Bockelman et al. 1977, Davis et al. 1990)、本病抵抗性育種の交配親として使用されている(Tekazu and Buchannon 1977, Moseman and Smith 1985)。岡山大学資源生物科学研究所大麦系統保存施設は世界的にも貴重なと東アジアの遺伝資源をはじめ五千余の保存品種を有するが、著者らは大麦網斑病の幼苗検定法を確立し、これらの品種の抵抗性を評価したので報告する。
Abstract Alternative A seedling test was developed and used to evaluate the resistance to net blotch of more than five thousand barley varieties preserved in the Barley Germplasm Center, Okayama University. 1) Disease ratings (Tekauz 1985) of varieties varied depending on the temperatures after inoculation. However, these was no change for rank of varietal resistance in the temperature range from 15 to 25℃, which covers the normal growing temperature for barley. 2) There was little variation in the level of seedling resistance of varieties under different levels of fertilizer application. 3) A high positive correlation was observed in the disease ratings obtained after second-leaf and fourth-leaf stage inoculations of the 2,230 barley varieties. Inoculation at the second leaf stage was superior to fourth leaf inoculation since it resulted in a wide range of disease ratings and required a shorter testing period. 4) The disease ratings observed appeared to be a stable genetic character sine the error standard deviations were only 0.4 to 0.8 in plots and 0.5 to 1.0 in plants, when four or five plants per plot were tested. 5) The disease ratings of 5, 102 varieties when tested with isolate K105 showed continuous variation with a mode in the resistant range. By comparing the average disease ratings for varieties from different regions, resistance was found to be higher in the Ethiopean and Koreaan barleys and lower in European, Tukish and South-east Asian types. However. there were obvious difference between varieties within a region, such as between two-rowed and six-rowed varieties from Japan and between covered and naked varieties from Nepal. 6) When varieties were classified into the principal morphological or physiological types of barley, the two-rowed, spring habit, and western-type in rachis brittleness showed significantly lower levels of resistance than the contrasting types for each of these classifications. In particular, the group having two-rowed, spring-habit, western-type, covered characteristics, which was common among malting barley varieties had lower resistance, while a group of six-rowed, autumn-habit, naked barleys showed higher resistance. Comparisons using isogenic pairs for row-types and hull-types did not reveal any obvious differences between each pair, indicating that the differences between groups were not probably due to the pleiotropic or likage effects of genes but to the different genetic backgrounds of these varieties.
Publication Title 岡山大学資源生物科学研究所報告
Published Date 1992
Volume volume1
Issue issue1
Start Page 75
End Page 90
ISSN 0916-930X
language 日本語
File Version publisher
NAID 120002313461
Title Alternative 日本とカナダの春播オオムギから採取した大麦網斑病菌株の病原性の変異
FullText URL 001_002_147_158.pdf
Author Sato, Kazuhiro| Takeda, Kazuyoshi|
Abstract Twenty-two isolates of Pyrenophora teres Drechs. collected from Japanese and Canadian spring barleys were inoculated to 38 barley varieties having various genetic backgrounds. The analysis of variance for the discase ratings showed that there were significant differences both in the virulence of isolates and the resistance of varieties. However, the interaction among isolates and varieties was not statistically significant. Both Finlay-Wilkinson regression analysis and principal component analysis by Additive Main effects and Multiplicative Interaction effects(AMMI)model classified the isolates into three groups,which were different in origins and sympton types. A spot tyte isolate was distinguished from net type isolates by its generally high virulence. A slight pathogenic differentiation was suggested between Japanese and Canadian net type isolates.
Abstract Alternative 北海道およびカナダの春播オオムギがら採取した22の大麦網斑病菌株(Pyrenophora teres Drechs.)を世界各地のオオムギ38品種に幼苗接種し、病斑指数によって病原性の変異を検討した。分散分析の結果、菌株の病原力ならびに品種の抵抗性には有意差が認められたが、菌株と品種の交互作用は統計的には有意でなかった。各菌株の反応をFinlay-Wilkinson(1963)の回帰分析によって解析したところ、北海道とカナダの菌株で病原性反応に差が認められた。この傾向はカナダの菌株のうち、通常のNet typeの菌株よりも斑点状病斑を示すSpot typeの菌株で顕著であった(Fig.1)。さらに、菌株と品種の交互作用を詳細に解析するために相互作用と相乗交互作用モデル(AMMIモデル)を適用して交互作用に関する主成分分析を行った結果、各菌株は日本のNet type、カナダのNet type、カナダのSpot typeの3群に分けられた(Fig.1)。各菌株について群間ならびに群内の相関係数を算出したところ(Table5)、Net typeの菌株相互の相関係数は0.601~0.969と相対的に高かったが、一部の菌株と品種の組合わせでは抵抗性反応の逆転がみられた(Fig.4)。一方、Spot typeの菌株とNet typeの菌株の相関係数は0.302~0.538と低く、両者の病原性は多少異なることが示された。このような一部の菌株と品種の間に認められる弱い交互作用は、抵抗性を支配する主働遺伝子の特異的な反応が、いわゆる圃場抵抗性を支配する微働遺伝子の作用によって修飾された結果と考えられる。
Keywords Hordeum vulgare Pyrenophora teres Barley Net blotch Race differentiation
Publication Title 岡山大学資源生物科学研究所報告
Published Date 1993
Volume volume1
Issue issue2
Start Page 147
End Page 158
ISSN 0916-930X
language 英語
File Version publisher
NAID 120002313862