JaLCDOI 10.18926/fest/11597
Title Alternative Preparation of Monodispersed Hydrophilic Polymer Microspheres in Gel Permeation Chromatography
FullText URL 005_159_163.pdf
Author Yoshizawa, Hidekazu| Ikeda, Satoshi| Kitamura, Yoshiro| Hasegawa, Masadumi| Moriyama, Hiroyuki| Kawano, Yoshinobu| Hatate, Yasuo|
Abstract Monodispersed porous polymer microspheres having diameter of ca. 50 μm were successfully prepared by suspension polymerization of styrene, polyoxyethylene methacrylate and ethylenegycol dimethacrylate. Monodispersed O/W emulsion was firstly made by SPG membrane emulsification technique, following droplets-swelling method of monodispersed seed emulsion by the addition of secondary emulsion. The effect of solvent used in suspension polymerization on porous structure of prepared polymer microspheres was investigated in this paper by identification with scanning electron microscopy, porosimeter and the performance in gel permeation chromatography. It was found that benzene, 1-butanol and butyl acetate worked as poor solvent for polymer prepared in this study and that polymer microspheres prepared with these solvents had larger pores. Gel permeation chromatography measurements indicates that polystyrene having molecular weight smaller than 50,000-100,000 can be clearly separated by using gel columns packed with polymer microspheres prepared with poor solvents.
Keywords polymer microsphere monodispersed emulsion swelling method hydrophilic polymer gel permeation chromatography size-exclusive separation
Publication Title 岡山大学環境理工学部研究報告
Published Date 2000-02-29
Volume volume5
Issue issue1
Start Page 159
End Page 164
ISSN 1341-9099
language 日本語
File Version publisher
NAID 120002313521
JaLCDOI 10.18926/fest/11594
FullText URL 005_153_158.pdf
Author Ye, Xuan| Hayashi, Nobuyuki| Tsuboi, Sadao|
Abstract This paper describes a novel synthesis of trienes by treatment of trans-2-alkenyl triphenylphosphonium bromides with BuLi in THF solution. Compounds, 5,7,9-tetradecatriene, 1,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene, and 2,6,11,16-tetramethyl-2,6,8,10,14-hexadecapentaene were prepared in the yields of 40%, 9%, and 46%, respectively. Cross-coupling of trans-2-heptenyltriphenylphosphonium bromide and trans-3-phenyl-2-propenyltriphenylphosphonium bromide gave a mixture of 5,7,9-tetradecatriene (10.6%), 1,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene (0.5%), and 1-phenyl-1,3,5-decatriene (9.4%).
Publication Title 岡山大学環境理工学部研究報告
Published Date 2000-02-29
Volume volume5
Issue issue1
Start Page 153
End Page 158
ISSN 1341-9099
language 英語
File Version publisher
NAID 120002313618
JaLCDOI 10.18926/fest/11591
Title Alternative Evaluation of Liquefaction Resistance by In-situ Testing and Its Application to Reliability Design
FullText URL 005_145_151.pdf
Author Nishimura, Shin-ichi| Shimizu, Hideyoshi| Fujii, Hiroaki| Shimada, Kiyoshi|
Abstract A calculation method of probability of liquefaction is proposed in this paper. The spatial variability of soil parameters for the dynamic shear strength, i.e., N-values, median grain size, fines contents, and the statistical characteristics of the earthquake frequency are considered in the analysis. The standard penetration test (SPT) is convenient to estimate the spatial variability of the dynamic shear strength and mainly used in this study. Furthermore the determination of dynamic shear strength based on Swedish weight Sounding test also introduced here, because it is the simpler test than SPT. While the statistical model of the earthquake frequency is determined based on the record of historical earthquakes. Using this method the probability of liquefaction is calculated. The sand compaction pile method is considered for the ground improvement against the liquefaction. Finally, the relationship between the sand replacement rate and the probability of liquefaction is clarified.
Keywords probability of liquefaction reliability design spatial variability of soil parameters statistical model of earthquake frequency dynamic shear strength
Publication Title 岡山大学環境理工学部研究報告
Published Date 2000-02-29
Volume volume5
Issue issue1
Start Page 145
End Page 151
ISSN 1341-9099
language 日本語
File Version publisher
NAID 120002314022
JaLCDOI 10.18926/fest/11589
Title Alternative Distribution and Age Structure of Population in Tottori City
FullText URL 005_121_144.pdf
Author Ichiminami, Fumikazu|
Abstract This study examined population data on the quarters or sub-areas in Tottori city in 1960 and 1995. First, the distributions of population data in both years were drawn, then the population changes and the rates were explained. While large increaces and high growth rates were scattered in the suburbs of the city, large depopulation and high decreace rates were clustered in the old core in the built-up areas and rural areas in the hilly and mountainous areas. Second, the rates of population under 15 years old and the rates of population over 65 years old were analyzed. Finally, the age structure of population was examined with 10 samples of the quarters or sub-areas in anticipation.
Keywords Tottori city Population Distribution Age structure City planning
Publication Title 岡山大学環境理工学部研究報告
Published Date 2000-02-29
Volume volume5
Issue issue1
Start Page 121
End Page 144
ISSN 1341-9099
language 日本語
File Version publisher
NAID 120002313744
JaLCDOI 10.18926/fest/11581
FullText URL 005_113_119.pdf
Author Xie Guanmo| Taniguchi, Takeo| Chouw Nawawi|
Abstract Near source earthquakes can produce strong vertical ground motions with large amplitude and high frequency content. In this paper the axial ductility behavior of RC columns due to near source earthquakes is investigated. The column is simplified to a SDOF system that only describes vertical vibrations of a structural column. The gravity load effect is represented by a pre-load. An elasto-plastic model accounting for different stiffness and strength in tension and compression is used in the analysis. The ductility demand as well as pseudo acceleration spectra are evaluated. The investigation shows that strong vertical ground motions should be considered in seismic design. From the results of this investigation suggestions for a seismic design in case of near source earthquakes can be derived.
Keywords RC columns ductility demand near source earthquakes strong vertical ground motions pseudo acceleration spectra
Publication Title 岡山大学環境理工学部研究報告
Published Date 2000-02-29
Volume volume5
Issue issue1
Start Page 113
End Page 119
ISSN 1341-9099
language 英語
File Version publisher
NAID 120002313363
JaLCDOI 10.18926/fest/11577
FullText URL 005_107_112.pdf
Author Tohari Adrin| Nishigaki, Makoto| Komatsu, Mitsuru|
Abstract Failures of railway embankments in Japan usually occur during rainfall period due to the rise of water level in the embankments. Laboratory experiments were carried out to elucidate the initiation of failure of embankment under the rise of water level. The changes in pore-water pressure were monitored during the rise of water table and at the initiation of failures. The experiment results showed that main failure of embankment was initiated by development of localized unstable area at the toe of the embankment models during the rise of water level. This indicates that failure of embankments was a consequence of instability of the toe of the slope induced by saturation process under drained condition.
Keywords embankment failure process seepage face toe failure overall instability
Publication Title 岡山大学環境理工学部研究報告
Published Date 2000-02-29
Volume volume5
Issue issue1
Start Page 107
End Page 112
ISSN 1341-9099
language 英語
File Version publisher
NAID 120002313411
JaLCDOI 10.18926/fest/11575
FullText URL 005_099_105.pdf
Author Taniguchi, Takeo|
Abstract Delaunay triangulation, a geometric subdivision of any convex domain, is often used as a finite element modeling method, but there are still several problems, which originally come from the characteristics of Delaunay triangulation. One problem appears when we remove some nodes which are already introduced for the triangulation. In this case we aim to obtain the triangulation without nodes by partial modification of the Delaunay triangulation with the node. Another problem occurs when tetrahedra with zero volume are generated by Delaunay triangulation. In this case they must be removed for the numerical analysis in order to guarantee the numerical stability and good numerical solutions. In this paper these two problems occuring at the use of Delaunay triangulation are theoretically discussed.
Keywords Delaunay triangulation Degeneracy Tetrahedron Automatic mesh generation
Publication Title 岡山大学環境理工学部研究報告
Published Date 2000-02-29
Volume volume5
Issue issue1
Start Page 99
End Page 105
ISSN 1341-9099
language 英語
File Version publisher
NAID 120002313608
JaLCDOI 10.18926/fest/11571
FullText URL 005_081_098.pdf
Author Magda Waldemar| Maeno, Shiro| Nago, Hiroshi|
Abstract A dynamic response of a submarine pipeline buried in sandy seabed sediments to water loading generated by harmonically oscillating water-table vertical movements is examined in the present report experimentally and numerically. The aim of small-scale laboratory experiments was: (1) to record time-histories of pipeline vertical displacements, and (2) to observe a shape of slip surface of an overburden sand body involved in breakout together with the pipeline. A parametric study was carried out in order to investigate the influence of two meaningful factors, that is the depth of burial and the specific gravity of pipeline, on a gradual upward displacement of the pipeline. Based on a numerical finite-element 2D-analysis of the hydrodynamic pore pressure and effective stresses oscillations in the pipeline vicinity, an analysis of the pipeline stability potential is presented, in which all the experimental cases tested are verified. All important component forces (e.g., hydrodynamic uplift force) associated with floatation phenomenon of the buried submarine pipeline are considered and quantified.
Keywords submarine pipeline surface waves pore pressure floatation stability
Publication Title 岡山大学環境理工学部研究報告
Published Date 2000-02-29
Volume volume5
Issue issue1
Start Page 81
End Page 98
ISSN 1341-9099
language 英語
File Version publisher
NAID 120002313700
JaLCDOI 10.18926/fest/11569
FullText URL 005_071_079.pdf
Author Jafar Ali Mohammad| Takeshita, Yuji| Fujii, Hiroaki|
Abstract In-situ determination of fundamental hydraulic parameters like variably saturated hydraulic conductivity (K(FS)) and the matric flux potential (Φ(m)) provides a foundation from which several other unsaturated soil parameters can be estimated, namely the Alpha (α*) parameter. This Alpha parameter is the one of the components of 3D unsaturated flow in vadose zone and its value is the measure of the capillary component of unsaturated flow pattern. Here an in-situ technique, Pressure Infiltrometer is introduced to record the steady flow rate applying a constant positive head on an unsaturated soil surface. The aim of this paper is to check the shape factor of 3D flow geometry and to find out its sensitivity on other unsaturated hydraulic parameters and to find out the influence of Alpha parameters on the results of the in-situ estimation of field-saturated hydraulic conductivity.
Keywords Field-saturated hydraulic conductivity Matric flux potential Alpha parameter Shape factor In-situ test
Publication Title 岡山大学環境理工学部研究報告
Published Date 2000-02-29
Volume volume5
Issue issue1
Start Page 71
End Page 79
ISSN 1341-9099
language 英語
File Version publisher
NAID 120002313869
JaLCDOI 10.18926/fest/11566
FullText URL 005_057_069.pdf
Author Fujita, Ryousuke|
Abstract Let G be a finite group, Y a finite connected G-CW-complex, and let Ⅱ(Y) denote G-poset (in the sense of Oliver-Petrie) associated to Y. They defined the abelian group Ω(G,Ⅱ(Y)) consisting of all equivalent classes of Ⅱ(Y)-complexes. They also defined the subgroup Φ(G,Ⅱ(Y)) related to Ⅱ(Y)-resolutions. We call Φ(G,Ⅱ(Y)) the resolution module of Y. Applying the Oliver-Petrie theory to the universal covering space Y, we obtain the group Ω(G,Ⅱ(Y)), where G is a certain extension of G by π(1)(Y). Then the canonical homomorphism ν : Ω(G,Ⅱ(Y))→ Ω(G,Ⅱ(Y)) induced by the projection Y → Y is an isomorphism. In this paper, for G = Z(p)×Z(q) we construct a finite G-CW-complex Y such that π(1)(Y) Zq and ν(Φ(G,Ⅱ(Y)) ≠ Φ(G,Ⅱ(Y)), where p and q are arbitrary distinct primes.
Keywords G-CW-complex G-map G-poset
Publication Title 岡山大学環境理工学部研究報告
Published Date 2000-02-29
Volume volume5
Issue issue1
Start Page 57
End Page 69
ISSN 1341-9099
language 日本語
File Version publisher
NAID 120002313951
JaLCDOI 10.18926/fest/11564
FullText URL 005_047_056.pdf
Author Otake, Masanori| Ohtsubo, Ryusuke| Tomita, Makoto| Tanaka, Yutaka|
Abstract Main content of this paper is to classify IQ individuals into two categories of normal and abnormal groups. It is too difficult to divide IQ individuals into two groups of normal IQ group and abnormal group because of sparse number of cases with mental retardation. Therefore, we examined a normality of 1673 IQ individuals, but a significant difference was noted for the IQ data. The lowest three mentally retarded cases of less than or equal to 59 IQ score were excluded, the IQ data then fitted to a normal distribution well. The critical value which minimizes the probability of classification is obtained on the basis on an approximate technique with regard to normality. An approximate probability of misclassification for individuals at random from mixture of two normal populations is 25.5%.
Keywords Compound distribution normality Prenatal exposure IQ misclassification
Publication Title 岡山大学環境理工学部研究報告
Published Date 2000-02-29
Volume volume5
Issue issue1
Start Page 47
End Page 56
ISSN 1341-9099
language 英語
File Version publisher
NAID 120002313674
JaLCDOI 10.18926/fest/11561
FullText URL 005_035_046.pdf
Author Choi, Seung Bae| Tanaka, Yutaka|
Abstract Spatial data is analyzed in three stages of 1) estimating the variograms, 2) fitting a model for the estimated variograms and 3) predicting the value at unknown location based on the information at known locations (kriging). Recently, it has become a subject of interest to detect influential observations in these stages. Choi and Tanaka(1999) have derived influence functions in the above three stages and have proposed sensitivity analysis procedure. So far influence functions have only been derived for variograms by Gunst and Hartfield(1996). The present article makes a comparison of the performances between those influence functions for variograms derived by Choi and Tanaka(1999) and by Gunst and Hartfield(1996). A real numerical example is given to discuss the validity or usefulness of those influence functions.
Keywords Stationary spatal data Influence function Sample variogram Median-polish residual
Publication Title 岡山大学環境理工学部研究報告
Published Date 2000-02-29
Volume volume5
Issue issue1
Start Page 35
End Page 46
ISSN 1341-9099
language 英語
File Version publisher
NAID 120002313332
JaLCDOI 10.18926/fest/11559
FullText URL 005_031_034.pdf
Author Watanabe, Masaji|
Abstract We study unsteady flow that models lake flow in Kojima Lake. We assume that a lake is connected to another area with gates, and that those gates are opened when the water level outside the gates is lower than the water level of the lake. We study unsteady flow due to the opening of the gates. We analyze the problem with the finite element method, and take detailed structures of the gates into account.
Keywords unsteady flow lake flow finite element method
Publication Title 岡山大学環境理工学部研究報告
Published Date 2000-02-29
Volume volume5
Issue issue1
Start Page 31
End Page 34
ISSN 1341-9099
language 英語
File Version publisher
NAID 120002313848
JaLCDOI 10.18926/fest/11557
Title Alternative Mathematical analysis of virus infectious diseases by ordinary differential equations
FullText URL 005_023_030.pdf
Author Sasaki, Toru| Kajiwara, Tsuyoshi|
Abstract Some mathematical models describing interaction of virus and cells in vivo are reviewed. Similar models using systems of ordinary differential equations can be used for the analysis of dynamics of virus and cells for different kinds of virus. Models for human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis C virus and hepatitis B virus are treated here. Although models are similar, different approximations can reduce the systems to the explicitly solvable forms. The solutions obtained here can be used to estimate biological parameters.
Keywords Virus Mathematica models HIV HCV HBV
Publication Title 岡山大学環境理工学部研究報告
Published Date 2000-02-29
Volume volume5
Issue issue1
Start Page 23
End Page 30
ISSN 1341-9099
language 日本語
File Version publisher
NAID 120002313498
JaLCDOI 10.18926/fest/11555
Title Alternative Simulations of Heel Impact by Viscoelastic Models
FullText URL 005_013_021.pdf
Author Kokubo, Masahito| Sasaki, Toru|
Abstract The purpose of this study is to make some body models with viscoelastic model, to simulate the heel impact and to obtain the ground reaction force. In this paper, we build up body models of linear viscoelastic elements and mass elements to simulate heel impact. Here we consider the systems of linear differential equations numerically for the preparation of mathematical analysis in future. The simplest model with two mass elements is hardly able to simulate the heel impact if the rate of mass of elements is realistic. The models with more elements are suitable to simulate for actual rate of weight of body segments. The model with three mass elements makes it possible to guess the force to each body segment.
Keywords Running Heel Impact Viscoelastic Model Biomechanics
Publication Title 岡山大学環境理工学部研究報告
Published Date 2000-02-29
Volume volume5
Issue issue1
Start Page 13
End Page 21
ISSN 1341-9099
language 日本語
File Version publisher
NAID 120002313531
JaLCDOI 10.18926/fest/11553
Title Alternative Mathematical analysis of pathogenesis of viral hepatitis.
FullText URL 005_007_011.pdf
Author Sasaki, Toru| Kajiwara, Tsuyoshi|
Abstract Simple mathematical models are considered to explain the pathogenesis of viral hepatitis. Dynamics of populations of liver cells and two virus strains are analyzed qualitatively. This analysis suggests the possibility that the viral mutation causes the hepatitis from the state of carrier.
Keywords hepatitis mathematical model mutation
Publication Title 岡山大学環境理工学部研究報告
Published Date 2000-02-29
Volume volume5
Issue issue1
Start Page 7
End Page 11
ISSN 1341-9099
language 日本語
File Version publisher
NAID 120002313400
JaLCDOI 10.18926/fest/11548
FullText URL 005_001_006.pdf
Author Ishikawa, Hirofumi| Ishii, Akira| Kaneko, Akira|
Abstract We have estimated the degree of transmission of Plasmodium vivax malaria in Vanuatu Islands, eastern Melanesia with the aid of the computer simulations, which has been carried out on the platform of a mathematical transmission model. The malaria caused by Plasmodium vivax has a relapse character, which arises from hypnozoites in the liver. This phenomen makes a malaria control strategy difficult. When the mass drug administration is executed, the prevalence of Plasmodium vivax decreases moderately as compared with that of Plasmodium falciparum, and it recovers before long being affected by the relapses. The simulations suggest that one cannot attain the eradication of Plasmodium vivax malaria without the concentrated execution of the mass drug administration and the vector control that fairly reduces the vactorial capacity.
Keywords Plasmodium vivax computer simulation hypnozoite mass drug administration relapse
Publication Title 岡山大学環境理工学部研究報告
Published Date 2000-02-29
Volume volume5
Issue issue1
Start Page 1
End Page 6
ISSN 1341-9099
language 英語
File Version publisher
NAID 120002313438