JaLCDOI 10.18926/fest/11658
FullText URL 001_311_320.pdf
Author Noll Wulf|
Abstract 1.) Vorbemerkung 2.) Uber das Verhaltnis von Schrift und Geschichte 3.) Widerstreit zwischen alphanumerischen und digitalen Codes 4.) Anforderungen an den Stil: ≫Ballungen≪versus≫Wattebausche der Software≪ 5.) Digitaler Schein, virtuelle und alternative Realitaten 6.) Zur Kritik des Flusserschen Ansatzes
Publication Title 岡山大学環境理工学部研究報告
Published Date 1996-03
Volume volume1
Issue issue1
Start Page 311
End Page 320
ISSN 1341-9099
language 日本語
File Version publisher
NAID 120002314146
JaLCDOI 10.18926/fest/11656
FullText URL 001_289_310.pdf
Author Kawabata, Atsuhiro|
Publication Title 岡山大学環境理工学部研究報告
Published Date 1996-03
Volume volume1
Issue issue1
Start Page 289
End Page 310
ISSN 1341-9099
language 日本語
File Version publisher
NAID 120002313466
JaLCDOI 10.18926/fest/11655
FullText URL 001_277_288.pdf
Author Tonomura, Naohiko|
Abstract This paper is an attempt to establish an objective criterion for civilizations, in order to treat them impartially and give them a fair assessment. First, theories up to the present about civilizations including those of Spengler and Toynbee are introduced. Second, the criterion presented by Bagby to distinguish major civilizations and peripheral civilizations are examined and proved to be subjective. Then the author proposes as an objective criterion for big civilizations just the pattern of succeeding four stages with the span of 400~500 years each. Big civilizations meeting this requirement which total eight or nine are divided into two types according to the difference of their nature. Lastly is shown how four puzzles of world history that have hitherto caused a lot of disputes (feudalism, absolute power of royalty, capitalism and modernization) can be solved through the recognition of these big civilizations.
Publication Title 岡山大学環境理工学部研究報告
Published Date 1996-03
Volume volume1
Issue issue1
Start Page 277
End Page 288
ISSN 1341-9099
language 英語
File Version publisher
NAID 120002313986
JaLCDOI 10.18926/fest/11654
Title Alternative The Thing That Fills the Hollow Cave: The Image of 'Hollow' in the Love Poems of Thomas Hardy
FullText URL 001_263_276.pdf
Author Kanzaki, Ken-ichi|
Publication Title 岡山大学環境理工学部研究報告
Published Date 1996-03
Volume volume1
Issue issue1
Start Page 263
End Page 276
ISSN 1341-9099
language 日本語
File Version publisher
NAID 120002313873
JaLCDOI 10.18926/fest/11652
Title Alternative Features of Australian Spoken English
FullText URL 001_247_261.pdf
Author Kashiwase, Shogo|
Abstract English is spoken in many countries, but the Australian brand is unmistakable. 'G' day, mate' will be curious to non-Australian people, but it will be delightful to the ears of Aussie. In this paper, a piece of (1) 'Australian Daily Spoken English' is displayed as a sample of Australian daily spoken language. A brief list of (2) 'Food Terms' is displayed to show the general features of Australian spoken English. The brief lists of (3) 'Shorten Forms', (4) 'Rhyming Slangs' and (5) 'Common Aussie Expressions' are displayed to show the features of Aussie English.
Publication Title 岡山大学環境理工学部研究報告
Published Date 1996-03
Volume volume1
Issue issue1
Start Page 247
End Page 261
ISSN 1341-9099
language 日本語
File Version publisher
NAID 120002313399
JaLCDOI 10.18926/fest/11651
Title Alternative Deregulation and Economic Promotion of Intermount Region
FullText URL 001_229_246.pdf
Author Ishihara, Terutoshi|
Publication Title 岡山大学環境理工学部研究報告
Published Date 1996-03
Volume volume1
Issue issue1
Start Page 229
End Page 246
ISSN 1341-9099
language 日本語
File Version publisher
NAID 120002313367
JaLCDOI 10.18926/fest/11649
Title Alternative Morphology Control of Aromatic Polymers during Polymerization
FullText URL 001_221_227.pdf
Author Yamashita, Yuhiko| Kimura, Kunio| Tsugita, Hiroshi| Yokoyama, Fumiyoshi|
Abstract Morphology and formation mechanism of poly (4'-oxy-4-biphenylcarbonyl) (POBP) crystals obtained by solution polymerization were firstly treated. It was concluded that the formation mechanism of the bundlelike aggregates of fibrillar crystals in POBP was fundamentally simillar to that in POB whiskers. Secondly the copolymerization effects of m-acetoxybenzoic acid and 4-(4-acetoxyphenyl) benzoic acid on the morphology of POB whiskers were studied. The experimental results strongly supported our proposal for the formation mechanism of whiskers which was consisted of crystallization of oligomers with a critical length as lamellae from solution and solid state polymerizationof oligomers between lamellae. Finally, the formation mechanism of poly (p-oxycinnamoyl) spherical products during solution polymerization was treated. The formation of these spherical products could be understood by overlapped phase diagram of melting depression curve and consolute curve of oligomers-solvent system.
Keywords morphology control aromatic polymers phase separation polymer whisker polymer beads rigid rod polymers
Publication Title 岡山大学環境理工学部研究報告
Published Date 1996-03
Volume volume1
Issue issue1
Start Page 221
End Page 227
ISSN 1341-9099
language 日本語
File Version publisher
NAID 120002313893
JaLCDOI 10.18926/fest/11647
FullText URL 001_211_219.pdf
Author Kitamura, Yoshiro| Ohta, Tomoyuki|
Abstract The drop formation in immiscible liquid-liquid systems under mass transfer conditions was experimentally investigated. To know the exact effact effect of mass transfer on drop sizes, the decrease of interfacial tensions due to the presence of solutes has to be evaluate. Interfacial tensions of liquid pairs were measured with a Wilhelmy method as a function of the relative amounts at which both the solution and the solvent were mutually saturated. The interfacial tensions between the liquid pairs mutually saturated at on equal amount were found to be appropriate for the prediction of the drop formation accompanying mass transfer.
Keywords Interfacial tension Drop size Extraction Mass transfer
Publication Title 岡山大学環境理工学部研究報告
Published Date 1996-03
Volume volume1
Issue issue1
Start Page 211
End Page 219
ISSN 1341-9099
language 英語
File Version publisher
NAID 120002313573
JaLCDOI 10.18926/fest/11646
FullText URL 001_205_210.pdf
Author Tsuboi, Sadao| Ono, Shin-ichiro| Utaka, Masanori|
Abstract Chiral reduction of 2-oxosuccinic acid esters with fermenting bakers' yeast gave (S)-(-)- malic acid esters in 34-54% isolated yield with 85-100% ee.
Keywords optically active malic acid balers' yeast asymmetric reduction α-ketoester.
Publication Title 岡山大学環境理工学部研究報告
Published Date 1996-03
Volume volume1
Issue issue1
Start Page 205
End Page 210
ISSN 1341-9099
language 英語
File Version publisher
NAID 120002313572
JaLCDOI 10.18926/fest/11645
Title Alternative Selective reduction of nitrogen oxide with propylene on alumina-zirconia prepared from Al chelate compound and Zr alkoxide
FullText URL 001_199_204.pdf
Author Kawabata, Koji| Yoshimatsu, Hideyuki| Yabuki, Tatsumi| Osaka, Akiyoshi| Miura, Yoshinari|
Abstract An alumina-zirconia (AZ) composite powder was prepared by thermal decomposition of the organic precursors, which were synthesized from ethyl acetoacetate aluminium diisopropylate and zirconium n-butoxide. Specific surface area of AZ was higher than that of alumina-zirconia (ALK) prepared from aluminium sec-butoxide and zirconium nbutoxide. True density of AZ was lower than that of ALK. Selective reduction of nitrogen oxide with propylene in oxygen-rich atmosphere on AZ was superior to that on ALK.
Keywords Al chelate compound Zr alkoxide alumina-zirconia specific surface area true density selective reduction of nitrogen oxide
Publication Title 岡山大学環境理工学部研究報告
Published Date 1996-03
Volume volume1
Issue issue1
Start Page 199
End Page 204
ISSN 1341-9099
language 日本語
File Version publisher
NAID 110002291536
JaLCDOI 10.18926/fest/11639
FullText URL 001_193_198.pdf
Author Shimada, Kiyoshi| Nishimura, Sin-ichi| Fujii, Hiroaki|
Abstract This paper presents a new method for prediction of consolidation settlements of soft grounds. The method is based on the theoretical result which shows that the settlement velocity of soft grounds non-improved or improved with sand drains decreases exponentially with time. Final settlements can be easily derived from the regression analysis for the relationship between the elapsed time and the observed settlement velocity. The method has advantages of its simplicity and capability to give the satisfactorily good estimate of the consolidation settlements, and also the support of the theoretical background.
Keywords consolidation settlement prediction soft ground sand drains one-dimensional consolidation
Publication Title 岡山大学環境理工学部研究報告
Published Date 1996-03
Volume volume1
Issue issue1
Start Page 193
End Page 198
ISSN 1341-9099
language 英語
File Version publisher
NAID 120002314033
JaLCDOI 10.18926/fest/11636
FullText URL 001_181_192.pdf
Author Fujii, Hiroaki| Narita, Mutsuya| Cheng Chin Thai| Shimada, Kiyoshi| Nishimura, Shinichi| Ofori Emanual|
Abstract This paper describes the prediction of seepage in the impervious zones of six embankment dams by seepage analysis. In addition, by making use of the available monitored pore water pressure data of the first filling of reservoir, back analysis was carried out to estimate the best fit seepage parameters. The estimated parameters were used for further prediction of pore water pressures in subsequent monitored durations with reasonable accuracy. The accuracy of prediction was evaluated quantitatively by the prediction difference and error index. The results show that the error indices in the upstream sides of the impervious zones are smaller than those in the downstream sides.
Keywords Unsaturated soils fill dams pore water pressure back analysis FEM
Publication Title 岡山大学環境理工学部研究報告
Published Date 1996-03
Volume volume1
Issue issue1
Start Page 181
End Page 192
ISSN 1341-9099
language 英語
File Version publisher
NAID 120002313591
JaLCDOI 10.18926/fest/11635
FullText URL 001_169_179.pdf
Author Abenney-Mickson Stephen| Miura, Takeshi|
Abstract The SWAP93 model was used to predict how much capillary rise would occur in cropped fields. The experimental fields were located in a humid climate and it was thought that contribution from groundwater sources to total water use could be significant. In one field planted with soybean, the model predicted an average daily uptake of 1.3 mm; in another field planted with pumpkin, there was average daily uptake of 0.3 mm; and yet in a third field located in a vinyl house there was average daily uptake of 0.03 mm. These predictions represent about 38,7 and 1% contribution to total water use respectively. Even though there were no measured data to compare with, the results lie within the range of other works reported in the literature.
Keywords Crop water use capillary rise SWAP93 model groundwater
Publication Title 岡山大学環境理工学部研究報告
Published Date 1996-03
Volume volume1
Issue issue1
Start Page 169
End Page 179
ISSN 1341-9099
language 英語
File Version publisher
NAID 120002313364
JaLCDOI 10.18926/fest/11630
Title Alternative Process of Acid Sulfate Soil Formation from the Viewpoint of Moisture Conditions on Coastal Muddy Soil and a trial of it's Amelioration
FullText URL 001_135_141.pdf
Author Adachi, Tadashi|
Abstract According to recent soil survey data, it has been reported that acid sulfate soils cover areas of about 11,670,000 hectares all over the world and about 40% of those are in South-East Asia. Most of crops could not be grown on those areas without any amelioration due to low soil pH. This report consists of two parts. One is on acid sulfate soil formation in laboratory experiment. Another is on a trial of acid sulfate soil amelioration in field experiment. The results obtained on acid sulfate soil formation, in order to make clear the relationships between the process of oxidation of sulfur compounds and the moisture conditions (moisture suction) in coastal muddy soils, in laboratory experiment are summarized as follows; The concentration of sulfuric ions increase as oxidation of sulfur compounds contained in pyrite, etc. occurs, and as a consequence, the soil pH decreases in the coastal muddy soil (Fig.1). Especially, the soil pH decreased remarkably in the range of pF 2.3~3.4. The activity of soil microorganism takes part in this reaction by helping out with bringing about sulfur oxidation and formation of sulfuric ions. The pH decrease in the soil with autoclaved treatment was only slight at pF values lower than pF 3.0. Accordingly, it is concluded that the decrease of pH in coastal muddy soil occurred mainly due to soil microorganisms which oxidize sulfur compounds under the condition of higher-water than pF 3.0. The results of field experiment is summarized as follows; As a general rule, it is able to remedy the surface acidification of peat/acid sulfate soils by mixing lime dust with plough layer. However, the effect of mixed lime dust is easily disappeared in the area where the acidic ground water table is always high and moves up over the surface in rainy season. Therefore, it was carried out that several experiments for seeking protection against surface acidification due to capillary upward movement of acidic ground water by means of inserting a buffering layer of lime gravel (thickness of lime gravel layer =5㎝) between the top soil and the acidic subsoil (20 ㎝ depth) in the fields, Munoh series which is young acid sulfate soil, at the Narathiwat Land Development Center in South Thailand. The results of soil pH measurement carried out in the field in November of 1985, August of 1987 and September of 1990, it coincides with 2,4 and 7 years respectively after the beginning of the experiments, are shown in Table 3. In the plot of P2 and U1, application of lime dust to the plough layer can increase soil pH rapidly but it's residual effect is not so long. Within a 5 year period, the soil pH is likely to return to below 4. On the other hand, an underlaid lime gravel layer tends to improve the soil around the lime gravel only slight but steadily with time. Therefore, it is concluded that surface soil acidification caused by the upward movement of acidified ground water would be protected against, rapidly and continuously, by both mixing lime dust with plough layer and underlying lime gravel below plough layer. If acid sulfate soil areas would be used as upland fields, much of organic matters in soil are easily decomposed by drying. Therefore, it is suggested that it would be better for these areas to be used as paddy fields, also from the above results.
Keywords Acid sulfate soil Soil microorganisms Moisture conditions Amelioration pH Sustainable effect
Publication Title 岡山大学環境理工学部研究報告
Published Date 1996-03
Volume volume1
Issue issue1
Start Page 135
End Page 141
ISSN 1341-9099
language 日本語
File Version publisher
NAID 120002313380
JaLCDOI 10.18926/fest/11628
Title Alternative Secular changes of air temperature and precipitation in Okayama City.
FullText URL 001_163_168.pdf
Author Miura, Takeshi|
Abstract In this paper, secular changes of air temperature and the amount of precipitation in Okayama city are discussed using observed values at Okayama meteorologiccal station. Special reference is made to 1993 and 1994 in which peculiar changes occurred. The results obtained are summarized as follows: (1) The increasing rate of the annual mean air temperature at Okayama city is 0.85℃/100y. This value is nearly equal to the average of Japan; 0.87℃/100y. (2) The increasing rate indicates seasonal changes, and the rate is high especially in April and May. (3) The rapid increase of the air temperature in the 1980s is due to removal of Okayama meteorological station from the edge of town to the center. (4) The annual mean air temperature in 1994 is 16.9℃, and the monthly mean temperature for July and August are 29.8 and 29.6℃ respectively. These values are new records at the Okayama station. (5) The air temperature in July and August, 1993 are higher than in 1980 when it was much colder in the summer. (6) The amount of precipitation does not show any secular changes.
Keywords the air temperature secular changes Okayama city
Publication Title 岡山大学環境理工学部研究報告
Published Date 1996-03
Volume volume1
Issue issue1
Start Page 163
End Page 168
ISSN 1341-9099
language 英語
File Version publisher
NAID 120002313505
JaLCDOI 10.18926/fest/11626
FullText URL 001_151_162.pdf
Author Ndegwa George Maina| Yomota, Atsushi|
Abstract Actual irrigation situation in a typical upland irrigation district was estimated by the water balance method during the 1993 rainy and the 1994 dry year periods. Soil moisture conditions were analysed for cases where daily district water use was supplied to all the cropped upland farms, and to reduced irrigation area percentages. Consumptive use was obtained through monthly weighted crop coefficients used to reduce penman's potential evapotranspiration. The moisture budget was examined at three levels of total readily available moisture, TRAM, i.e., 20,30 and 40 mm; the effect of upward capillary rise was also considered. The results of this study indicated that the actual moisture conditions in upland irrigated farms is influenced by irrigation area, cropping pattern, stage of crop growth and upward capillary rise in the farms. Actual irrigated area was within the range of about 44 to 100% of cropped area while upward capillary rise was between 0.1 and 1 mm day-1, TRAM level of 30 to 40 mm was considered most appropriate for the district. Monthly effective rainfall percentages from the water balance method were fairly close to that determined by the basic irrigation requirement method for some months. Basic irrigation requirement may therefore be considered to incorporate capillary water contribution.
Keywords Upland irrigation TRAM Water balance Capillary water Effective rainfall
Publication Title 岡山大学環境理工学部研究報告
Published Date 1996-03
Volume volume1
Issue issue1
Start Page 151
End Page 162
ISSN 1341-9099
language 英語
File Version publisher
NAID 120002313861
JaLCDOI 10.18926/fest/11623
Title Alternative Rain-water Retention of a Small-scale Upland Field in a Rainy Year and a Droughty Year
FullText URL 001_143_149.pdf
Author Yomota, Atsushi|
Abstract From the standpoint of water resources development and environmental preservation, rain water retentivity of agricultural and forest lands are evaluated. Measurement of rainfall and runoff has been carried out at the reclaimed upland field of 4.55 ha since 1981. In this article, water retention characteristics of this study basin is compared in a rainy year of 1993 and a droughty year of 1994. In cases of rainfall less than 20mm, most of the rain water infiltrates into the soil layer. On the other hand, about 75% of a heavy rain, such as 300 mm in 1993, runs off the soil surface. Within the infiltrating rain water, the ratio of water which is kept by capillary action and can be used by crops is estimated to be less than 40% in months of rainfall more than 150 mm, but in months of rainfall less than 50 mm, it is estimated that more than 80% of rainfall can be used by crops. The ratio of monthly rainfall which contributes to base flow recharge is 0 to 12% regardless of rainfall amount.
Keywords upland field monthly rainfall rain water retention effective rainfall base flow recharge
Publication Title 岡山大学環境理工学部研究報告
Published Date 1996-03
Volume volume1
Issue issue1
Start Page 143
End Page 149
ISSN 1341-9099
language 日本語
File Version publisher
NAID 120002313677
JaLCDOI 10.18926/fest/11622
FullText URL 001_121_133.pdf
Author Maeno, Shiro| Yamamoto, Tetsuo| Nago, Hiroshi|
Abstract In this paper the theoretical procedure to analyze the dynamic behavior of highly saturated sand bed around a cylindrical block under the cyclic loading of water pressure is developed. The fundamental equations were derived for the axially symmetric coordinates. Then, the finite element equations were developed to solve these fundamental equations numerically. Finally, the numerical method was verified by experiments.
Publication Title 岡山大学環境理工学部研究報告
Published Date 1996-03
Volume volume1
Issue issue1
Start Page 121
End Page 133
ISSN 1341-9099
language 英語
File Version publisher
NAID 120002313416
JaLCDOI 10.18926/fest/11619
FullText URL 001_115_119.pdf
Author Takeshita, Yuji| Kono, Iichiro|
Abstract The unsaturated soil hydraulic properties are essential data to predict the seepage behavior in the vadose zone. In this paper, a new experimental methodology of determining unsaturated soil hydraulic properties is proposed. The soil hydraulic properties are assumed to be represented by van Genuchten's closed-form expressions. Unknown parameters of this model are identified by using a optimization techniques. The optimization approach is nonlinear least-squares algorithm in corporating finite element analysis of one-dimensional nonsteady seepage flow. The advantages of the methods are in the possibility of identifying the optimal unsaturated soil hydraulic properties and diminishing experimental time. To evaluate availability of our proposed method, experimental results which are determined by proposed methods and conventional method are compared for decomposed granite soil.
Keywords unsaturated hydraulic properties back analysis laboratory test groundwater
Publication Title 岡山大学環境理工学部研究報告
Published Date 1996-03
Volume volume1
Issue issue1
Start Page 115
End Page 119
ISSN 1341-9099
language 英語
File Version publisher
NAID 120002313807
JaLCDOI 10.18926/fest/11618
Title Alternative Transport Policy in United Kingdom -Concept and Practice for Better Transport Environment
FullText URL 001_091_113.pdf
Author Inouye, Hiroshi|
Abstract The movement of transport policy in United Kingdom and its problems are surveyed in this paper. First, the general trend in transport, road program, and technologies to improve road safety and environment are introduced. Then, concepts to decrease traffic congestion are outlined, followed parking control strategies. Recent issues such as road pricing scheme in London, M25 widening plan, also deregulation and privatisation of transport and their problems are examined.
Publication Title 岡山大学環境理工学部研究報告
Published Date 1996-03
Volume volume1
Issue issue1
Start Page 91
End Page 113
ISSN 1341-9099
language 日本語
File Version publisher
NAID 120002314020