To evaluate the therapeutic effect of Naikan psychotherapy for alcohol dependence syndrome, a comparison was made between 31 patients who were treated with Naikan psychotherapy (Naikan group) and 34 patients who were not treated with Naikan psychotherapy (non-Naikan group) on the following profiles : general characteristics, social adaptation occuring 6 months to 2 years 6 months after discharge (short-term follow-up) and social adaptation occuring 3 years 5 months to 5 years 5 months after discharge (long-term follow-up). Some typical cases of Naikan psychotherapy were presented. It was suggested that Naikan psychotherapy was effective for the treatment of alcohol dependence syndrome. It was useful in helping the alcoholics to understand the necessity of abstaining (motivation to abstain) and had a long-term therapeutic effect (maintenance of abstinence). It was concluded that the therapeutic effect of Naikan psychotherapy was derived from the understanding of egocentricity by acquiring a therapeutic guilt-feeling and the overcoming the denial in the alcoholic patient.