Journal of Okayama Medical Association
Published by Okayama Medical Association

Full-text articles are available 3 years after publication.


Shinozaki, Shinichi
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In order to investigate the angular displacement of the joints of the lower extremity during the walking on the level and slopes, electrogoniometric assembly was attached to each joint of the lower extremities of ten subjects. Foot switches were attached to the sole of the shoes to know the time factors of a walking cycle. The inclinations of the slope were 3, 6, 9 and 12 degrees. The results were summerized as follows; 1, In upslope walking, the more the slope inclined, the more flexed the hip joint from middle of swing phase to beginning of stance phase. During push off the more the slope inclined, the less extended the hip joint. More flexion of the hip joint should be due to clear the toes against the slope, and less extension should be due to keep the center of gravity of the body much higher. 2, In upslope walking the knee joint began to extend from foot flat so that the body might displace upwards. During heel strike, the upward displacement of the body should be performed by the extension of the hip joint. 3, The ankle joint showed the same maximum dorsiflexion in each slope inclination during push off. It was considered that lower leg and foot made a rigid lever arm so that the sufficient propulsion is obtained. 4, Although the hip joint extended from heel strike to middle of foot flat in level walking, the hip joint motion varied according to inclination in down slope walking. In 3degrees it was same as in level walking. In 6 and 9degrees hip joint keep the same flexed position and in 12degrees it flexed. In this way, the center of gravity of the body is thought to be lowered smoothly. 5, In down slope walking the more the slope inclined, the more flexed the knee joint from foot flat to push off. The flexion of the knee joint is considered to lower the center of gravity of the body smoothly. 6, In down slope walking (9 and 12degrees) the ankle joint dorsiflexed at heel strike so that the lower leg and the foot made a rigid lever arm to counteract against body acceleration. 7, Generally speaking, the angular displacement of the lower extremity joints during walking in over 6 degrees inclination showed different patterns from those in level walking.
angular displacement
level walking
slope walking