In the vital observations of 8 cases of cancer, 10 cases of tuberculosis and 2 cases of nephrosis by means of tissue cultures of pleural effusion of respective group, the author obtained the following results: (1) In the case of cancer, the average cell count is 720/m㎥. The characteristics of the cell composition are the appearance of tumor cells and tumorous signet-ring cells, a slight increase in the number of serous cells, a moderate increase of neutrophils and the appearance of phagocytic-ring cells. (2) In the case of tuberculous pleurisy, the average cell count is 1564/m㎥. There can be recognized such characteristics as a increase of small size phagocytics and lymphocytes. The movement of these cells are slightly disturbed compare with non-pathologic condition. (3) In the case of nephrosis, the average cell count is 180/m㎥. The characteristic of the cells is increase of small phagocyte and serous cells, but most of cells are degenerated in the early stage.