With the purpose to elucidate the influences of various vitamins on the function of megakaryocytes as well as to investigate the effect of B(12) and folic acid on the same function in idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura, the author conducted a series of tissue culture (cover-slip method) of human bone marrow with direct addition of various vitamins (excluded V.C) on one hand and vitamin B(12) and folic acid to the bone marrow of the patients with the idiopathic purpura on the other; and obtained the following results: 1. With the addition of B(12) 50 γ/c.c. or 15 γ/c.c. the function of megakaryocytes was somewhat promoted. 2. In the case of addition of folic acid 0.015 mg/c.c. the function of megakaryocytes was markedly increased. 3. In the case of the addition of vitamin B(12) and folic acid in combination, these two substances acted in concert with one another. 4. The addition of such vitamins as B(1), co-carboxylase, vitamin B(2), B(6), P, K, and nicotinic acid showed no effect at all on the megakaryocyte function. 5. B(12) as well as folic acid acted directly to stimulate the megakaryocyte function of idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura.