The influences of temperature and humidity in the operating room on the lower explosive limit were studied and the relation of the indoor air conditioning to the precaution against ignition was clarified. 1) By raising the temparature of the mixed gases of ether or cyclopropane with the air from 8°C to 30°C. the lower explosive limits went straightly from 2.27% to 1.84% in case of ether gas and from 2.6% to 2.38% in case of cyclopropane. Thus the danger of ignition increased. 2) In the highest humidity of the mixed gases of ether or cyclopropane with the air, the extent of the explosive limits increased about 0.11% in case of ether gas and about 0.07% in case of cyclopropane than in the lowest humidity. Thus the tendency of explosion increased, but the difference was not so marked.