A 55-year-old man who had been diagnosed with rectal cancer with multiple liver metastases and lymph node metastases on colonoscopy and computed tomography (CT) was referred to Okayama University Hospital for treatment. Based on the diagnosis of non-curative rectal cancer, we planned to perform systematic chemotherapy after surgical resection. We performed a low anterior resection of a 36×35 mm upper rectal moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma with wil-type KRAS. After the resection, a FOLFIRI regimen with cetuximab was given as the first-line chemotherapy. Although metastatic lesions in the liver showed shrinkage, we decided to switch regimens because of intolerable adverse events. A modified FOLFOX6 regimen with bevacizumab was administered as the second-line treatment. There were no signs of disease progression until eight months later, when positron emission tomography (PET)/CT scans revealed that the new metastatic lesions appeared. As the third-line treatment, an irinotecan with cetuximab regimen was administered, leading to a good response for over 12 months.
We experienced a successful rechallenge with cetuximab for a case with metastatic rectal cancer. For patients with wild-type KRAS colorectal cancer, rechallenge with cetuximab-based chemotherapy can be an effective therapeutic option.