The thalamic afferents to the cortical taste area in the cat were studied by retrograde transport of horseradish peroxidase. The taste area extends from the lateral lip of the presylvian sulcus to the posterior part of the orbital gyrus. It is bounded anteriorly and anteromedially by area 6, medially by the fundus and medial bank of the presylvian sulcus, laterally by the first somatosensory area, and posteriorly by the insular area. The taste area receives fibers mainly from the medial smaller-celled part of the posteromedial ventral nucleus (VPMM). Cortical projections of the VPMM form a complicated pattern, but are organized roughly in a topical manner anteroposteriorly. The anterior part of the taste cortex receives fibers from the anterodorsal and posteroventral portions of the anterior two-thirds of the VPMM, whereas the posterior taste cortex receives fibers from the anteroventral, posterodorsal and posterior portions of the posterior two-thirds of the VPMM. In addition, there appears to be a mediolateral organization of cortical projections of the VPMM to the taste area. The taste cortex receives a few projections from the ventral lateral, ventral medial, submedial, paracentral, lateral central, parafascicular and medial central nuclei.