In this paper, the nature of Tsuyama region was explained in terms of several changing features such as agricultural, industrial, commercial, and sight-seeing activities. Also, short history of mining sulfide ore at Yanahara Town was described and the population change of surrounding area was analyzed. Although the vitality of agriculture in general has gradually fallen mainly due to the decrease of number of farm household, of the rate of full-time farm household, of the area of farmland, and of the harvested area of rice, tobacco, and Japanese radish, the production of black syobean and the rate of vegetables, etc. have increased. After the highway of Chugoku line was opened to traffic, the number of industrial parks and establishments suddenly increased in and around Tsuyama City and they employed many workers. Within the industries of Tsuyama City, manufactures of genaral and electrical machineries, equipment and supplies developed, but the ones of textile mill products, apparel and other finished products made from fabrics and similar materials declined. In sight-seeing, tourists of Yunogou spa have increased in a satisfactory. Population of the municipalities except Tsuyama City have decreased since 1970 and a number of large-sized stores have come to be located in the suburbs of Tsuyama City.