Recently the concept of "instruction" faces much confusion. New view of student archievement, which advocates self-initiated learning and independent decision-making, strongly emphasizes spontaneity or responding to individuals. This inevitably implies the need of passive approach such as "to watch for", "to understand and accept" and "support" by teachers. On the other hand, introduction of the period for integrated studies and reduction of class hours of academic subjects triggered fears of decline of student achievement among parents as well as teachers. For those who see the bottom-line of school education as acquisition of the basis and the fundamentals, instruction means nothing but training to master the basics and to acquire the fundamentals. However, it doesn't imply that instruction should go between "watch for" and "training". Rather teaching should establish the interactive, responstive relationships between a teacher and students and the learning materials should be envisaged and prepared as something that help develop capacity of understanding and expression of children. In this sense, the learning materials provide a crucial framework when integration of instruction and learning is the issue.
capacity to design lessons
understanding of children